The popular film was brilliantly adapted from L. Frank Baum's venerated children's book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (written in 1899 and published in 1900) by Noel Langley, Florence Ryerson, and E.A. Woolf, and a team of many uncredited scriptwriters (including Arthur Freed, Herman Mankiewicz, Sid Silvers, and Ogden Nash). The Wizard of Oz was first performed on-stage in 1902-03 in Chicago and New York. Then, it was made into a silent film in 1910 (as the short film The Wonderful Wizard of Oz with 9 year old Bebe Daniels as Dorothy), again in 1921, and in 1925 (with comedian Oliver Hardy of Laurel and Hardy fame portraying the Tin Woodsman). Other versions included a Canadian black and white feature The Wizard of Oz (1933), a short animated version in 1938, The Wiz (1978) - Universal's Afro-American film of the Broadway musical, and Disney's live-action fantasy Return to Oz (1985).