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du - estimate file space usage  


du [OPTION]... [FILE]...
du [OPTION]... --files0-from=F  


Summarize disk usage of each FILE, recursively for directories.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

-a, --all

   write counts for all files, not just directories 


   print apparent sizes, rather than disk usage; although the apparent size is usually smaller, it may be larger due to holes in (`sparse') files, internal fragmentation, indirect blocks, and the like 

-B, --block-size=SIZE use SIZE-byte blocks -b, --bytes

   equivalent to `--apparent-size --block-size=1' 

-c, --total

   produce a grand total 

-D, --dereference-args

   dereference FILEs that are symbolic links 


   summarize disk usage of the NUL-terminated file names specified in file F 


   like --si, but also evokes a warning; will soon change to be equivalent to --dereference-args (-D) 

-h, --human-readable

   print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G) 


   like -h, but use powers of 1000 not 1024 


   like --block-size=1K 

-l, --count-links

   count sizes many times if hard linked 


   like --block-size=1M 

-L, --dereference

   dereference all symbolic links 

-P, --no-dereference

   don't follow any symbolic links (this is the default) 

-0, --null

   end each output line with 0 byte rather than newline 

-S, --separate-dirs

   do not include size of subdirectories 

-s, --summarize

   display only a total for each argument 

-x, --one-file-system

   skip directories on different file systems 

-X FILE, --exclude-from=FILE

   Exclude files that match any pattern in FILE. 

--exclude=PATTERN Exclude files that match PATTERN. --max-depth=N

   print the total for a directory (or file, with --all) only if it is N or fewer levels below the command line argument; --max-depth=0 is the same as --summarize 


   show time of the last modification of any file in the directory, or any of its subdirectories 


   show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status 

--time-style=STYLE show times using style STYLE:

   full-iso, long-iso, iso, +FORMAT FORMAT is interpreted like `date' 


   display this help and exit 


   output version information and exit 

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y. PATTERNS PATTERN is a shell pattern (not a regular expression). The pattern ? matches any one character, whereas * matches any string (composed of zero, one or multiple characters). For example, *.o will match any files whose names end in .o. Therefore, the command

   du --exclude='*.o' 

will skip all files and subdirectories ending in .o (including the file .o itself).


Written by Torbjorn Granlund, David MacKenzie, Paul Eggert, and Jim Meyering.


Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.


Copyright © 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO[edit]

The full documentation for du is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and du programs are properly installed at your site, the command

   info du 

should give you access to the complete manual.

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