Asynchronous Transfer Mode
The cell used with ATM is relatively small compared to units used with older technologies.
Current implementations of ATM support data transfer rates of from 25 to 622 Mbps (megabits per second).
ATM creates a fixed channel, or route, between two points whenever data transfer begins. This differs from TCP/IP,in which messages are divided into packets and each packet can take a different route from source to destination.
This difference makes it easier to track and bill data usage across an ATM network, but it makes it less adaptable to sudden surges in network traffic.
When purchasing ATM service, you generally have a choice of four different types of service:
Constant Bit Rate (CBR) specifies a fixed bit rate so that data is sent in a steady stream. This is analogous to a leased line.
Variable Bit Rate (VBR) provides a specified throughput capacity but data is not sent evenly. This is a popular choice for voice and videoconferencing data.
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) does not guarantee any throughput levels. This is used for applications, such as file transfer, that can tolerate delays.
Available Bit Rate (ABR) provides a guaranteed minimum capacity but allows data to be bursted at higher capacities when the network is free.