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    FTP File Transfer protical[edit]

    The File Transfer Protocol is described in RFC 959 ([1]).

    FTP operates on top of TCP/IP.


    Clients[edit]

    Linux/Unix[edit]

    ncftp is a nice command-line client for Unix/Linux based systems. Unlike the regular ftp it has tab-completion of file names, can save bookmarks and much more.

    Windows[edit]

    A nice windows ftp client is Leech FTP


    Also see[edit]

    ftp -h[edit]

    $ ftp -h
    
    Transfers files to and from a computer running an FTP server service
    (sometimes called a daemon). Ftp can be used interactively.
    
    FTP [-v] [-d] [-i] [-n] [-g] [-s:filename] [-a] [-w:windowsize] [-A] [host]
    
      -v             Suppresses display of remote server responses.
      -n             Suppresses auto-login upon initial connection.
      -i             Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file
                     transfers.
      -d             Enables debugging.
      -g             Disables filename globbing (see GLOB command).
      -s:filename    Specifies a text file containing FTP commands; the
                     commands will automatically run after FTP starts.
      -a             Use any local interface when binding data connection.
      -A             login as anonymous.
      -w:buffersize  Overrides the default transfer buffer size of 4096.
      host           Specifies the host name or IP address of the remote
                     host to connect to.
    
    Notes:
      - mget and mput commands take y/n/q for yes/no/quit.
      - Use Control-C to abort commands.
    



    UNIX man ftp[edit]

    FTP(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual			FTP(1)
    
    NAME
    
         ftp - Internet file transfer program
    
    SYNOPSIS
    
         ftp [-pinegvd] [host]
         pftp [-inegvd] [host]
    
    DESCRIPTION
    
         Ftp is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Proto-
         col.  The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote
         network site.
    
         Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command inter-
         preter.
    
         -p	   Use passive mode for data transfers. Allows use of ftp in environ-
    	   ments where a firewall prevents connections from the outside world
    	   back to the client machine. Requires that the ftp server support
    	   the PASV command. This is the default now for all clients (ftp and
    	   pftp) due to security concerns using the PORT transfer mode.	 The
    	   flag is kept for compatibility only and has no effect anymore.
    
         -i	   Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.
    
         -n	   Restrains ftp from attempting ``auto-login'' upon initial connec-
    	   tion.  If auto-login is enabled, ftp will check the .netrc (see
    	   netrc(5)) file in the user's home directory for an entry describing
    	   an account on the remote machine.  If no entry exists, ftp will
    	   prompt for the remote machine login name (default is the user iden-
    	   tity on the local machine), and, if necessary, prompt for a pass-
    	   word and an account with which to login.
    
         -e	   Disables command editing and history support, if it was compiled
    	   into the ftp executable. Otherwise, does nothing.
    
         -g	   Disables file name globbing.
    
         -v	   Verbose option forces ftp to show all responses from the remote
    	   server, as well as report on data transfer statistics.
    
         -d	   Enables debugging.
    
         The client host with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on the
         command line.  If this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish
         a connection to an FTP server on that host; otherwise, ftp will enter its
         command interpreter and await instructions from the user.	When ftp is
         awaiting commands from the user the prompt 'ftp>' is provided to the
         user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:
    
         ! [command [args]]
    		 Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there
    		 are arguments, the first is taken to be a command to execute
    		 directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.
    
         $ macro-name [args]
    		 Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef
    		 command.  Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.
    
         account [passwd]
    		 Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system
    		 for access to resources once a login has been successfully
    		 completed.  If no argument is included, the user will be
    		 prompted for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.
    
         append local-file [remote-file]
    		 Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If
    		 remote-file is left unspecified, the local file name is used
    		 in naming the remote file after being altered by any ntrans
    		 or nmap setting.  File transfer uses the current settings for
    		 type, format, mode, and structure.
    
         ascii	 Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the
    		 default type.
    
         bell	 Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer com-
    		 mand is completed.
    
         binary	 Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.
    
         bye	 Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit
    		 ftp.  An end of file will also terminate the session and
    		 exit.
    
         case	 Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during mget
    		 commands.  When case is on (default is off), remote computer
    		 file names with all letters in upper case are written in the
    		 local directory with the letters mapped to lower case.
    
         cd remote-directory
    		 Change the working directory on the remote machine to
    		 remote-directory.
    
         cdup	 Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of
    		 the current remote machine working directory.
    
         chmod mode file-name
    		 Change the permission modes of the file file-name on the
    		 remote sytem to mode.
    
         close	 Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return
    		 to the command interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.
    
         cr		 Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file
    		 retrieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
    		 sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr is on (the
    		 default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
    		 conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.
    		 Records on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single line-
    		 feeds; when an ascii type transfer is made, these linefeeds
    		 may be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr is
    		 off.
    
         delete remote-file
    		 Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.
    
         debug [debug-value]
    		 Toggle debugging mode.	 If an optional debug-value is speci-
    		 fied it is used to set the debugging level.  When debugging
    		 is on, ftp prints each command sent to the remote machine,
    		 preceded by the string '-->'
    
         dir [remote-directory] [local-file]
    		 Print a listing of the directory contents in the directory,
    		 remote-directory, and, optionally, placing the output in
    		 local-file.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt
    		 the user to verify that the last argument is indeed the tar-
    		 get local file for receiving dir output.  If no directory is
    		 specified, the current working directory on the remote
    		 machine is used.  If no local file is specified, or
    		 local-file is -, output comes to the terminal.
    
         disconnect	 A synonym for close.
    
         form format
    		 Set the file transfer form to format.	The default format is
    		 ``file''.
    
         get remote-file [local-file]
    		 Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.
    		 If the local file name is not specified, it is given the same
    		 name it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration by
    		 the current case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  The current
    		 settings for type, form, mode, and structure are used while
    		 transferring the file.
    
         glob	 Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget and mput.	If
    		 globbing is turned off with glob, the file name arguments are
    		 taken literally and not expanded.  Globbing for mput is done
    		 as in csh(1).	For mdelete and mget, each remote file name is
    		 expanded separately on the remote machine and the lists are
    		 not merged.  Expansion of a directory name is likely to be
    		 different from expansion of the name of an ordinary file: the
    		 exact result depends on the foreign operating system and ftp
    		 server, and can be previewed by doing 'mls remote-files -'
    		 Note: mget and mput are not meant to transfer entire direc-
    		 tory subtrees of files.  That can be done by transferring a
    		 tar(1) archive of the subtree (in binary mode).
    
         hash	 Toggle hash-sign (``#'') printing for each data block trans-
    		 ferred.  The size of a data block is 1024 bytes.
    
         help [command]
    		 Print an informative message about the meaning of command.
    		 If no argument is given, ftp prints a list of the known com-
    		 mands.
    
         idle [seconds]
    		 Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds sec-
    		 onds.	If seconds is ommitted, the current inactivity timer
    		 is printed.
    
         lcd [directory]
    		 Change the working directory on the local machine.  If no
    		 directory is specified, the user's home directory is used.
    
         ls [remote-directory] [local-file]
    		 Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote
    		 machine.  The listing includes any system-dependent informa-
    		 tion that the server chooses to include; for example, most
    		 UNIX systems will produce output from the command 'ls -l'.
    		 (See also nlist.)  If remote-directory is left unspecified,
    		 the current working directory is used.	 If interactive
    		 prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the
    		 last argument is indeed the target local file for receiving
    		 ls output.  If no local file is specified, or if local-file
    		 is '-', the output is sent to the terminal.
    
         macdef macro-name
    		 Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro
    		 macro-name; a null line (consecutive newline characters in a
    		 file or carriage returns from the terminal) terminates macro
    		 input mode.  There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total
    		 characters in all defined macros.  Macros remain defined
    		 until a close command is executed.  The macro processor
    		 interprets `$' and `\' as special characters.	A `$' followed
    		 by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the corresponding
    		 argument on the macro invocation command line.	 A `$' fol-
    		 lowed by an `i' signals that macro processor that the execut-
    		 ing macro is to be looped.  On the first pass `$i' is
    		 replaced by the first argument on the macro invocation com-
    		 mand line, on the second pass it is replaced by the second
    		 argument, and so on.  A `\' followed by any character is
    		 replaced by that character.  Use the `\' to prevent special
    		 treatment of the `$'.
    
         mdelete [remote-files]
    		 Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.
    
         mdir remote-files local-file
    		 Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified.  If
    		 interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to ver-
    		 ify that the last argument is indeed the target local file
    		 for receiving mdir output.
    
         mget remote-files
    		 Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get
    		 for each file name thus produced.  See glob for details on
    		 the filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then be
    		 processed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.
    		 Files are transferred into the local working directory, which
    		 can be changed with 'lcd directory'; new local directories
    		 can be created with '! mkdir directory'.
    
         mkdir directory-name
    		 Make a directory on the remote machine.
    
         mls remote-files local-file
    		 Like nlist, except multiple remote files may be specified,
    		 and the local-file must be specified.	If interactive prompt-
    		 ing is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last
    		 argument is indeed the target local file for receiving mls
    		 output.
    
         mode [mode-name]
    		 Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default mode is
    		 ``stream'' mode.
    
         modtime file-name
    		 Show the last modification time of the file on the remote
    		 machine.
    
         mput local-files
    		 Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as argu-
    		 ments and do a put for each file in the resulting list.  See
    		 glob for details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names
    		 will then be processed according to ntrans and nmap settings.
    
         newer file-name [local-file]
    		 Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file
    		 is more recent that the file on the current system.  If the
    		 file does not exist on the current system, the remote file is
    		 considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to
    		 get.
    
         nlist [remote-directory] [local-file]
    		 Print a  list of the files in a directory on the remote
    		 machine.  If remote-directory is left unspecified, the cur-
    		 rent working directory is used.  If interactive prompting is
    		 on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument
    		 is indeed the target local file for receiving nlist output.
    		 If no local file is specified, or if local-file is -, the
    		 output is sent to the terminal.
    
         nmap [inpattern outpattern]
    		 Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments
    		 are specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If
    		 arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during
    		 mput commands and put commands issued without a specified
    		 remote target filename.  If arguments are specified, local
    		 filenames are mapped during mget commands and get commands
    		 issued without a specified local target filename.  This com-
    		 mand is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer
    		 with different file naming conventions or practices.  The
    		 mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.
    		 [Inpattern] is a template for incoming filenames (which may
    		 have already been processed according to the ntrans and case
    		 settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by including
    		 the sequences `$1', `$2', ..., `$9' in inpattern.  Use `\' to
    		 prevent this special treatment of the `$' character.  All
    		 other characters are treated literally, and are used to
    		 determine the nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For example,
    		 given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name "mydata.data",
    		 $1 would have the value "mydata", and $2 would have the value
    		 "data".  The outpattern determines the resulting mapped file-
    		 name.	The sequences `$1', `$2', ...., `$9' are replaced by
    		 any value resulting from the inpattern template.  The
    		 sequence `$0' is replace by the original filename.  Addition-
    		 ally, the sequence '[seq1, seq2]' is replaced by [seq1] if
    		 seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by seq2.
    		 For example, the command
    
    		       nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]
    
    		 would yield the output filename "myfile.data" for input file-
    		 names "myfile.data" and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for
    		 the input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the
    		 input filename ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in
    		 outpattern, as in the example: `nmap $1 sed "s/  *$//" > $1'
    		 .  Use the `\' character to prevent special treatment of the
    		 `$','[','[', and `,' characters.
    
         ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
    		 Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.
    		 If no arguments are specified, the filename character trans-
    		 lation mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified, char-
    		 acters in remote filenames are translated during mput com-
    		 mands and put commands issued without a specified remote tar-
    		 get filename.	If arguments are specified, characters in
    		 local filenames are translated during mget commands and get
    		 commands issued without a specified local target filename.
    		 This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote
    		 computer with different file naming conventions or practices.
    		 Characters in a filename matching a character in inchars are
    		 replaced with the corresponding character in outchars.	 If
    		 the character's position in inchars is longer than the length
    		 of outchars, the character is deleted from the file name.
    
         open host [port]
    		 Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server.  An
    		 optional port number may be supplied, in which case, ftp will
    		 attempt to contact an FTP server at that port.	 If the
    		 auto-login option is on (default), ftp will also attempt to
    		 automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).
    
         prompt	 Toggle interactive prompting.	Interactive prompting occurs
    		 during multiple file transfers to allow the user to selec-
    		 tively retrieve or store files.  If prompting is turned off
    		 (default is on), any mget or mput will transfer all files,
    		 and any mdelete will delete all files.
    
         proxy ftp-command
    		 Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.
    		 This command allows simultaneous connection to two remote ftp
    		 servers for transferring files between the two servers.  The
    		 first proxy command should be an open, to establish the sec-
    		 ondary control connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to
    		 see other ftp commands executable on the secondary connec-
    		 tion.	The following commands behave differently when pref-
    		 aced by proxy: open will not define new macros during the
    		 auto-login process, close will not erase existing macro defi-
    		 nitions, get and mget transfer files from the host on the
    		 primary control connection to the host on the secondary con-
    		 trol connection, and put, mput, and append transfer files
    		 from the host on the secondary control connection to the host
    		 on the primary control connection.  Third party file trans-
    		 fers depend upon support of the ftp protocol PASV command by
    		 the server on the secondary control connection.
    
         put local-file [remote-file]
    		 Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is
    		 left unspecified, the local file name is used after process-
    		 ing according to any ntrans or nmap settings in naming the
    		 remote file.  File transfer uses the current settings for
    		 type, format, mode, and structure.
    
         pwd	 Print the name of the current working directory on the remote
    		 machine.
    
         quit	 A synonym for bye.
    
         quote arg1 arg2 ...
    		 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
    		 server.
    
         recv remote-file [local-file]
    		 A synonym for get.
    
         reget remote-file [local-file]
    		 Reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is
    		 smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a par-
    		 tially transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is
    		 continued from the apparent point of failure.	This command
    		 is useful when transferring very large files over networks
    		 that are prone to dropping connections.
    
         remotehelp [command-name]
    		 Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name
    		 is specified it is supplied to the server as well.
    
         remotestatus [file-name]
    		 With no arguments, show status of remote machine.  If
    		 file-name is specified, show status of file-name on remote
    		 machine.
    
         rename [from] [to]
    		 Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.
    
         reset	 Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes com-
    		 mand/reply sequencing with the remote ftp server.  Resynchro-
    		 nization may be necessary following a violation of the ftp
    		 protocol by the remote server.
    
         restart marker
    		 Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated
    		 marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset
    		 into the file.
    
         rmdir directory-name
    		 Delete a directory on the remote machine.
    
         runique	 Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique file-
    		 names.	 If a file already exists with a name equal to the
    		 target local filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is
    		 appended to the name.	If the resulting name matches another
    		 existing file, a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If
    		 this process continues up to ".99", an error message is
    		 printed, and the transfer does not take place.	 The generated
    		 unique filename will be reported.  Note that runique will not
    		 affect local files generated from a shell command (see
    		 below).  The default value is off.
    
         send local-file [remote-file]
    		 A synonym for put.
    
         sendport	 Toggle the use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will
    		 attempt to use a PORT command when establishing a connection
    		 for each data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent
    		 delays when performing multiple file transfers.  If the PORT
    		 command fails, ftp will use the default data port.  When the
    		 use of PORT commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to
    		 use PORT commands for each data transfer.  This is useful for
    		 certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT commands
    		 but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.
    
         site arg1 arg2 ...
    		 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
    		 server as a SITE command.
    
         size file-name
    		 Return size of file-name on remote machine.
    
         status	 Show the current status of ftp.
    
         struct [struct-name]
    		 Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  By default
    		 ``stream'' structure is used.
    
         sunique	 Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file
    		 names.	 Remote ftp server must support ftp protocol STOU com-
    		 mand for successful completion.  The remote server will
    		 report unique name.  Default value is off.
    
         system	 Show the type of operating system running on the remote
    		 machine.
    
         tenex	 Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX
    		 machines.
    
         trace	 Toggle packet tracing.
    
         type [type-name]
    		 Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is spec-
    		 ified, the current type is printed.  The default type is net-
    		 work ASCII.
    
         umask [newmask]
    		 Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.	 If
    		 newmask is ommitted, the current umask is printed.
    
         user user-name [password] [account]
    		 Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password
    		 is not specified and the server requires it, ftp will prompt
    		 the user for it (after disabling local echo).	If an account
    		 field is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the
    		 user will be prompted for it.	If an account field is speci-
    		 fied, an account command will be relayed to the remote server
    		 after the login sequence is completed if the remote server
    		 did not require it for logging in.  Unless ftp is invoked
    		 with ``auto-login'' disabled, this process is done automati-
    		 cally on initial connection to the FTP server.
    
         verbose	 Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all responses from the
    		 FTP server are displayed to the user.	In addition, if ver-
    		 bose is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics
    		 regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported.	 By
    		 default, verbose is on.
    
         ? [command]
    		 A synonym for help.
    
         Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote `"'
         marks.
    
    ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER
    
         To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-
         C).  Sending transfers will be immediately halted.	 Receiving transfers
         will be halted by sending a ftp protocol ABOR command to the remote
         server, and discarding any further data received.	The speed at which
         this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR
         processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, an
         'ftp>' prompt will not appear until the remote server has completed send-
         ing the requested file.
    
         The terminal interrupt key sequence will be ignored when ftp has com-
         pleted any local processing and is awaiting a reply from the remote
         server.  A long delay in this mode may result from the ABOR processing
         described above, or from unexpected behavior by the remote server,
         including violations of the ftp protocol.	If the delay results from
         unexpected remote server behavior, the local ftp program must be killed
         by hand.
    
    FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
    
         Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to
         the following rules.
    
         1.	  If the file name '-' is specified, the stdin (for reading) or stdout
    	  (for writing) is used.
    
         2.	  If the first character of the file name is '|', the remainder of the
    	  argument is interpreted as a shell command.  Ftp then forks a shell,
    	  using popen(3) with the argument supplied, and reads (writes) from
    	  the stdout (stdin).  If the shell command includes spaces, the argu-
    	  ment must be quoted; e.g.  ``" ls -lt"''.  A particularly useful
    	  example of this mechanism is: ``dir more''.
    
         3.	  Failing the above checks, if ``globbing'' is enabled, local file
    	  names are expanded according to the rules used in the csh(1); c.f.
    	  the glob command.  If the ftp command expects a single local file
    	  (.e.g.  put), only the first filename generated by the "globbing"
    	  operation is used.
    
         4.	  For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file
    	  names, the local filename is the remote filename, which may be
    	  altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting filename
    	  may then be altered if runique is on.
    
         5.	  For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file
    	  names, the remote filename is the local filename, which may be
    	  altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.	The resulting filename may
    	  then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.
    
    FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS
    
         The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file
         transfer.	The type may be one of ``ascii'', ``image'' (binary),
         ``ebcdic'', and ``local byte size'' (for PDP-10's and PDP-20's mostly).
         Ftp supports the ascii and image types of file transfer, plus local byte
         size 8 for tenex mode transfers.
    
         Ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer
         parameters: mode, form, and struct.
    
    ENVIRONMENT
    
         Ftp utilizes the following environment variables.
    
         HOME	 For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.
    
         SHELL	 For default shell.
    
    SEE ALSO
    
         ftpd(8), RFC 959
    
    HISTORY
    
         The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.
    
    BUGS
    
         Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the
         remote server.
    
         An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
         transfer code has been corrected.	This correction may result in incor-
         rect transfers of binary files to and from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii
         type.  Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.
    
    Linux NetKit (0.17)		August 15, 1999		   Linux NetKit (0.17)
    

    <jargon />

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